• FIRST AID FOR BURNS
  • The skin is an essential part of your body and its largest organ.
  • You have three layers of skin which act as a barrier against disease, poisons and the sun's harmful rays.
  • The functions of your skin are also very complex: it keeps you warm or cool; it prevents your body from losing too much water; it is where you feel cold, heat or pain and it gives you your sense of touch.
  • So as you can imagine, if your skin gets burned it can be very serious.
  • First aid is a very important first step in the treatment of bums.
  • Causes of burns
  • You can get burned by a variety of things: hot liquids, steam, fire, radiation (by being close to high heat or fire, etc), the sun, electricity or chemicals.
  • Types of burns
  • There are three types of burns.
  • Burns are called first, second or third degree burns, depending on
  • which layers of the skin are burned.
  • ◎ First degree burns These affect only the top layer of the skin.
  • These burns are not serious and should feel better within a day or two.
  • Examples include mild sunburn and burns caused by touching a hot pan, stove or iron for a mordent.
  • ◎ Second degree burns These affect both the top and the second layer of the skin.
  • These bums are serious and take a few weeks to heal.
  • Examples include severe sunburn and bums caused by hot liquids.
  • ◎ Third degree burns These affect all three layers of the skin and any tissue and organs under the skin.
  • Examples include burns caused by electric shocks, burning clothes, or severe petrol fires.
  • These burns cause very severe injuries and the victim must go to hospital at once.
  • Characteristics of burns
  • First degree burns
  • ◎ dry, red and mildly swollen
  • ◎ mildly painful
  • ◎ turn white when pressed
  • Second degree burns
  • ◎ rough, red and swollen
  • ◎ blisters
  • ◎ watery surface
  • ◎ extremely painful
  • Third degree burns
  • ◎ black and white and charred
  • ◎ swollen; often tissue under them can be seen
  • ◎ little or no pain if nerves are damaged; may be pain around edge of injured area.
  • First aid treatment
  • 1 Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn.
  • Take off other clothing and jewellery near the burn.
  • 2 Cool burns immediately with cool but not icy water.
  • It is best to place burns under gently running water for about 10 minutes.
  • (The cool water stops the burning process, prevents the pain becoming unbearable and reduces swelling.
  • ) Do not put cold water on third degree burns.
  • 3 For first degree burns, place cool, clean, wet cloths on them until the pain is not so bad.
  • For second degree burns, keep cloths cool by putting them back in a basin of cold water, squeezing them out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so bad.
  • 4 Dry the burned area gently.
  • Do not rob, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get infected.
  • 5 Cover the burned area with a dry, clean bandage that will not stick to the skin.
  • Hold the bandage in place with tape.
  • Never put butter, oil or ointment on bums as they keep the heat in the wounds and may cause infection.
  • 6 If bums are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if possible.
  • If bums are on the face, the victim should sit up.
  • 7 If the injuries are second or third degree bums, it is vital to get the victim to the doctor or hospital at once.
人教版高三英语必修5 Unit5 First aid听力Mp3下载 Reading部分
0:00:00 0:00:00

人教版高三英语必修5 Unit5 First aid听力Mp3下载 Reading部分

年级:初一 时长:38分 学习人数:327837 发布时间:2015-12-06
  • 课程章节
  • 用户评论
  • 音频打包下载 音频单个下载